If you believe R-22a or another hydrocarbon refrigerant was introduced into your air conditioner, EPA recommends that you contact your local fire department for guidance. New refrigerant recovery equipment that has been designed and approved for use with flammable refrigerants is now available. You may also report a violation of EPA's regulations. EPA continues to investigate instances where propane-based refrigerants have been marketed and sold as a substitute for R-22 and take enforcement actions where appropriate.
EPA cannot comment on any specific enforcement actions that it may be undertaking or that are in the early stages of investigation. However, EPA has settled with companies over allegations of illegal activity regarding the sale of R-22a as a refrigerant and will continue to take enforcement actions where appropriate. Some examples of past enforcement actions include:
If a system has R22 in it already you cannot use a replacement refrigerant to simply add to the R22. For one, R 22 is its own refrigerant whereas the replacement refrigerants are made up of several different kinds of refrigerants designed to mimic operating pressures/temperatures of R 22. Equipment manufacturers will also tell you that unless the oil being used in your HVAC system is POE oil you cannot use an R22 replacement refrigerant in the system in most cases (M099 is the exception). Most of the older systems use mineral oil that is less viscous than POE oil, and the mineral oil does not work well with the new R22 replacement refrigerants. If the compressor has been replaced recently or the system is relatively new it may have POE oil in it in which case adding an R22 replacement refrigerant to a system that has little to no refrigerant in it is a viable solution that should be discussed with the homeowner.
The use of a propane-based refrigerant in an air conditioner that is not designed to use propane or flammable refrigerants poses a threat to homeowners as well as maintenance technicians, as systems that are recharged with an unapproved alternative called \"22a\" can catch fire or explode, resulting in injury or property damage. The EPA said it continues to investigate cases where propane-based refrigerants have been illegally marketed and used as substitutes for HCFC-22 (R-22) and will continue to take enforcement action where appropriate.
The most common refrigerant today, R-22, has a 100-year GWP of 1,810, almost 2,000 times the potency of carbon dioxide, so just one pound of R-22 is nearly as potent as a ton of carbon dioxide. To compare with driving a car, this means that just one 30-lb tank of R-22 is more potent if released, than the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere by driving nearly 7 additional cars each year (source data available at CARB's CoolCalifornia Calculator).
Ensuring exceptionally leak-tight systems and near-perfect reclamation, or changing course to safer alternatives in refrigeration systems, are two options for addressing the risk to the climate posed by high-GWP refrigerants.
Their drawbacks far outweigh their benefits, however. The US Environmental Protection Agency this week issued a news release about the dangers of unapproved refrigerants. EPA is aware of incidents that have occurred both overseas and in the U.S. where individuals have been injured as a result of the use of propane and other unapproved refrigerants in air conditioning systems.
Eliwell R-22 refrigerant has been proved as a better , during various tests, 5 to 6% Higher Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) . This makes the OEM manufacturers to design the Compact Air Conditioning Equipment & that is the reason Millions of Compact Air-condition units are Sold around the World where Eliwell R 410A is used as Refrigerants.
FIG. 1 represents a conventional mechanical refrigeration system of the type typically used in a supermarket freezer. Specifically, compressor 10 compresses refrigerant vapor and discharges it through line 20 into condenser 11. Condenser 11 condenses the refrigerant vapors to the liquid state aided by circulating fan 31. The liquid refrigerant next flows through lines 21a and 21b into receiver 12. From receiver 12, the liquid refrigerant flows through line 22 to counter-flow heat exchanger (not shown). After passing through the exchanger, the refrigerant flows via line 23 through thermostatic expansion valve 14. Valve 14 expands the liquid refrigerant to a lower pressure liquid which flows into and through evaporator 15 where it evaporates back into a vapor, absorbing heat. Valve 14 is connected to bulb 16 by capillary tube 30. Bulb 16 throttles valve 14 to regulate temperatures produced in evaporator 15 by the flow of the refrigerant. Passing through evaporator 15, the expanded refrigerant absorbs heat returning to the vapor state aided by circulating fan 32. The refrigerant vapor then returns to compressor 10 through line 24.
The most serious deficiency of the previously described centrifugal pumping method is caused by the state of the refrigerant at the outlet of the condenser 116 or receiver 122. The liquid refrigerant at this location in the system is commonly at or very near the saturation point. Any vapor that forms at the inlet of the centrifugal pump due to incomplete condensation or slight drop in pressure caused by the pump suction or any other reason will cause the centrifugal pump to cavitate or vapor lock and lose prime. This renders the centrifugal pump ineffective until the system is stopped and restarted again, and is very detrimental to pump life and reliability. Due to the constantly varying conditions of operation of the refrigeration system this can occur with great regularity.
Referring now to FIG. 5, a closed circuit compression-type refrigeration system includes a compressor 10, a condenser 11, an optional receiver 12, an expansion valve 14 and an evaporator 15 connected in series by conduits defining a closed-loop refrigerant circuit. Refrigerant gas is compressed by compressor unit 10, and routed through discharge line 20 into condenser 11. A fan 31 facilitates heat dissipation from condenser 11. Another fan 32 aids evaporation of the liquid refrigerant in evaporator 15. The compressor 10 receives warm refrigerant vapor at pressure P1 and compresses and raises its pressure to a higher pressure P2. The condenser cools the compressed refrigerant gases and condenses the gases to a liquid at a reduced pressure P3. From condenser 11, the liquefied refrigerant flows through line 21 into receiver 12 in cases where there is currently a receiver in the system. If there is no receiver in the system the condensed refrigerant flows directly into the liquid line 22. Receiver 12 in turn discharges liquid refrigerant into liquid line 22.
The remainder of the liquid refrigerant from the parallel piping arrangement 60 flows through the line and through an optional counter-current heat exchanger (not shown) to thermostatic expansion valve 14. Thermostatic expansion valve 14 expands the liquid refrigerant into evaporator 15 and reduces the refrigerant pressure to near P1. Refrigerant flow through valve 14 is controlled by temperature sensing bulb 16 positioned in line 24 at the output of evaporator 15. A capillary tube 30 connects sensing bulb 16 to valve 14 to control the rate of refrigerant flow through valve 14 to match the load at the evaporator 15. The expanded refrigerant passes through evaporator 15 which, aided by fan 32, absorbs heat from the area being cooled. The expanded, warmed vapor is returned at pressure P1 through line 24 to compressor 10, and the cycle is repeated.
Referring to FIG. 5, compressor 10 compresses the refrigerant vapor which then passes through discharge line 20 to condenser 11. In the condenser 11, at pressure P2, heat is removed and the vapor is liquefied by use of ambient air or water flow across the heat exchanger. At condenser 11, temperature and pressure levels are allowed to fluctuate with ambient air temperatures in an air-cooled system, or with water temperatures in a water-cooled system to a minimum condensing pressure/temperature that has previously been set at about 95.degree. F. This previously set minimum condensing temperature has been necessary to prevent the formation of flash gas in the liquid line 22. The previously set minimum was maintained by reducing air or water flow across the heat exchanger of condenser 11 to reduce heat transfer from the condenser. Further decreasing the condensing temperatures increase system efficiency in two ways: 1) The lower pressure differential of the compressor 10 increases the compressor volumetric efficiency according to the formula V.sub.e =1+C-C*(V.sub.1 /V.sub.2) where V.sub.e is volumetric efficiency, C is the clearance ratio of the compressor, V.sub.1 is the specific volume of the refrigerant vapor at the begining of compression, V.sub.2 is the specific volume of the refrigerant vapor at the end of compression, and 2) The lower liquid refrigerant temperature at the outlet of the condenser results in a greater cooling effect in the evaporator.
As ambient air temperature or cooling water temperature increases, the condensing temperature and pressure of the refrigeration or air conditioning system also increases and efficiency is reduced. In order to improve eficiency at these higher ambient conditions when air conditioning and refrigeration systems are at or near maximum capacity, liquid refrigerant is bypassed from the liquid line (FIG. 5) into the compressor discharge line 20. Since there is some amount of pressure lost as the refrigerant passes through the condenser, making condenser exit pressure P3 lower than entrance pressure P2, a pump is needed to add enough pressure to insure flow of liquid from the liquid line into the discharge line 20. The preferred method is to use a positive displacement pump, driven by a variable speed drive, controlled by the temperature differential between the superheated compressor discharge vapor temperature T2 and the condensing temperature T3. As the temperature differential becomes greater, the variable speed drive would cause the positive displacement pump to pump more liquid into the discharge line 20 to decrease the superheat. When the superheat temperature and the condensing temperature were the same, the refrigerant vapor entering the condenser would be at the saturation point and the speed of the positive displacement pump would stabilize to a pre-set speed to maintain the condition. 59ce067264